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Share Transcript What is Translation? Translation is the process in which a written communication or a text in a first language is produced as the written communication or text in the second language interpreting the same meaning.

Here the text in the first language is the "source text" and the equivalent text that communicates the same message is the "target text" or "translated text". Initially translation has been a manual activity. Hang drum swiss cumpărare anti aging, together with manual translation, there is also automatic translation of natural-language texts, which is referred to as machine translation or computer- assisted translation which use computers as an aid to translation.

Translation is one way to bring the world closer. Origin of the term Etymologically, "translation" refers to "bringing across" or "carrying across". Originated from the latin word "translatio", the perfect passive participle of which is "translatum" or "transferre".

Trans implies "to transfer" and "ferre" implies to "to carry to bring across". For the modern Roman, Germany and Slavic European language, the word "traducere" is used for translation which implies "to bring across" or "to lead across" in English.

The Greek term for translation is "metaphrasis" which implies "a speaking across". Factors to take in Consider for Translation Translation is not so easy as it sounds to be.

Moreover, translation does not mean a simple word for word for correspondence between any two languages. It is not a mechanical process where each word is translated to the target language.

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Rather, many factors are to be taken into consideration to get the exact output creme anti-imbatranire recenzii 2022 the target language.

This is to be noted that some languages follow reverse style. For example, while in English we write 1, Translation requires a complete understanding of the customs and lifestyle of a group of people so as to translate in a manner that communicates to that culture's world view.

Translation agencies use various terms to refer to different kinds of work they have to perform, and this article will help you to understand better what they mean. There are five main types of translations, technical translation, scientific translation, artistic literary translation, translation of documents, and general translation. Hang drum swiss cumpărare anti aging translation The translation of administrative texts. Although administrative has a very broad meaning, in terms of translation it refers to common texts used within businesses and organizations that are used in day to day management.

It can also be stretched to cover texts with similar functions in government. Commercial translation Commercial translation or business translation covers any sort of document used in the business world such as correspondence, company accounts, tender documents, reports, etc. Commercial translations require specialist translators with knowledge of terminology used in the business world.

Computer translation Not to be confused with CAT, computer assisted translations, which refer to translations carried out by software. Computer translation is the translation of anything to do with computers such as software, manuals, help files, etc. Economic translation Similar to hang drum swiss cumpărare anti aging or business translation, economic translation is simply a more specific term used for the translation of documents relating to the field of economics.

Such texts are usually a lot more academic in nature. Financial translation Financial translation is the translation of texts of a financial nature. Cabunac anti-imbatranire from banking to asset management to stocks and bonds could be covered. General translation A general translation is the simplest of translations. A general text means that the language used is not high level and to a certain extent could be in layman's terms.

There is no specific or technical terminology used. Most translations carried out fall under this category.

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Legal translation Legal translations are one of the trickiest translations known. At its simplest level it means the translation of legal documents such as statutes, contracts and treaties.

A legal translation will always need specialist attention. This is because law is culture-dependent and requires a translator with an excellent understanding of both the source and target cultures.

Most translation agencies would only ever use professional legal to undertake such work. This is because there is no real margin for error; the mistranslation of a passage in a contract could, for example, have disastrous consequences. When translating a text within the field of law, the translator should keep the following in mind. The legal system of the source text is structured in a way that suits that culture and this is reflected in the legal language; similarly, the target text is to be read by someone who is familiar with another legal system and its language.

Literary translation A literary translation is the translation of literature such as novels, poems, plays and poems. The translation of literary works is considered by many one of the highest forms of translation as it involves so much more than simply translating text.

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A literary translator must be capable of also translating feelings, cultural nuances, humour and other subtle elements of a piece of work. Some go as far as to say that literary translations are not really possible. In the Russian- born linguist Roman Jakobson went as far as to declare that "poetry by definition [was] untranslatable". In the American poet James Merrill wrote a poem, "Lost in Translation," which in part explores this subject.

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Medical translation A medical translation will hang drum swiss cumpărare anti aging anything from the medical field from the packaging of medicine to manuals for medical equipments to medical books.

Like legal translation, medical translation is specialization where a mistranslation can have grave consequences. Technical translation A technical translation has a broad meaning.

It usually refers to certain fields such as IT or manufacturing and deals with texts such as manuals and instructions. Technical translations are usually more expensive than general translations as they contain a high amount of terminology that only a specialist translator could deal with.

Machine translation is extremely limited in quality and usefulness. For example, to hang drum swiss cumpărare anti aging "honey," the machine translator might give the options le miel and chéri so that the person could decide which one eliminare riduri cu laser sense in the context.

This is considerably better than machine translation, and some argue that it is more effective than human-only translation. This task is performed by interpreters when an article in the source language is not provided with a translation such as a memo handed out at a meeting.

Localization includes translation of documents, dialog boxes, etc. Types of Interpretation: Consecutive interpretation consec The interpreter takes notes while listening to a speech, then does his or her interpretation during pauses.

This is commonly used when there are just two languages at work; for example, if the American and French presidents were having a discussion. The consecutive interpreter would interpret in both directions, French to English and English to French. Unlike translation and simultaneous interpretation, consecutive hang drum swiss cumpărare anti aging is commonly done into the interpreter's A and B languages. Simultaneous interpretation simul The interpreter listens to a speech and simultaneously interprets it, using headphones and a microphone.

This is commonly used when there are numerous languages needed, such as in the United Nations. Each target language has an assigned channel, so Spanish speakers might turn to channel one for the Spanish interpretation, French speakers to channel two, etc. Simultaneous interpretation should only be done into one's A language. Translation versus Interpretation For some reason, most laypeople refer to both translation and interpretation as "translation. So what is the difference between translation and interpretation?

It's very simple. Translation is written - it involves taking a written text such as a book or an article and translating it in writing into the target language. Interpretation is oral - it refers to listening to something spoken a speech or phone conversation and interpreting it orally into the target language.

So you can see that the main difference is in how the information is presented - orally in interpretation and written in translation.

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So translators are excellent writers, while interpreters have superior oral communication skills. In addition, spoken language is quite different from written, which adds a further dimension to the distinction. Techniques of translation As we all know, good translation is not usually just a question of translating each word in turn of the source text into the target language.

Nor does it often consist, however, of the translator skimming through the source text, putting it aside and then jotting down the general idea of it in his or her own words in the target language. In between the two extremes there is a wide variety of techniques "strategies"many of which translators will use intuitively for any given text.

Borrowing Borrowing is the taking of words directly from one language into another without translation. Many English words are "borrowed" into other languages; for example software in the field of technology and funk in culture. English also borrows numerous words from other languages; abbatoire, café, passé and résumé from French; hamburger and kindergarten from German; bandana, musk and sugar from Sanskrit.

Borrowed words are often printed in italics when they are considered to be "foreign".

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Calque A calque or loan translation itself a calque of German Lehnübersetzung is a phrase borrowed from another language and translated literally word-for-word.

You often see them in specialized or internationalized fields such as quality assurance aseguramiento de calidad, assurance qualité taken from English.

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Examples that have been absorbed into English include standpoint and beer garden from German Standpunkt and Biergarten; breakfast from French déjeuner which now means lunch in Europe, but maintains the same meaning of breakfast in Québec. Some calques can become widely accepted in the target language such as standpoint, beer garden and breakfast and Spanish peso mosca and Casa Blanca from English flyweight and White House. The meaning other calques can be rather obscure for most people, especially when they relate to specific vocations or subjects such as science and law.

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Solución de compromiso is a Spanish legal term taken from the English compromise solution and although Spanish attorneys understand it, the meaning is not readily understood by the layman. An unsuccessful calque can be extremely unnatural, and can cause unwanted humor, often interpreted as indicating the lack of expertise of the translator in the target language. Literal Translation A word-for-word translation can be used in some languages and not others dependent on the sentence structure: El equipo está trabajando para terminar el informe would translate into English as The team is working to finish the report.

Sometimes it works and sometimes it does not. For example, the Spanish sentence above could not be translated into French or German using this technique because the French and German sentence structures are different.

And because one sentence can be translated literally across languages does not mean that all sentences can be translated literally. El equipo experimentado está trabajando para terminar el informe translates into English as The experienced team is working to finish the report "experienced" and "team" are reversed. Transposition This is the process where parts of speech change their sequence when they are translated blue ball becomes boule bleue in French.

It is in a sense a shift of word class.

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Grammatical structures are often different in different languages. He likes swimming translates as Er schwimmt gern in German. Transposition is often used between English and Spanish because of the preferred position of the verb in the sentence: English often has the verb near the beginning of a sentence; Spanish can have it closer to the end. Modulation Modulation consists of using a phrase that is different in the source and target languages to convey the same idea: Te lo dejo means literally I leave it to you but translates better as You can have it.

It changes the semantics and shifts the point of view of the source language. Through modulation, the translator generates a change in the point of view of the message without altering meaning and without generating a sense of awkwardness in the reader of the target text. It is often used within the same language. The expressions es fácil de entender it is easy to understand and no es complicado de entender it is not complicated to understand are examples of modulation.

Although both convey the same meaning, it is easy to understand simply conveys "easiness" whereas it is not complicated to understand implies a previous assumption of difficulty that we are denying by asserting it is not complicated to understand. This type of change of point of view in a message is what makes a reader say: "Yes, this is exactly how we say it in our language".