Incidentally, I know personally the authors of the most interesting projects of new churches not so incidentally practically none of the respective projects was carried out. I also wrote a few books addressing the matter of the sacred space2 both from the vantage of architecture and the hermeneutics of the biblical text. As this experience, as much as it is, directly connects with the topic of the sacred space and because it also pertains to the public space, involving to a great extent aspects of professional deontology and ethics of the actors of the public space, I will present several contemporary problems of the sacred space as perceived by the theorist and also by the practitioner of architecture.
A Brief History After it became obvious that there will be a huge pressure to build rapidly new cult abodes for all the denominations. More than a thousand suggestions of new churches were put forth for approval by various specialized bodies, which also mushroomed.
Eventually, they stopped altogether. Finally, in a competition for the cathedral of the Redemption the Nation was organized by the Patriarchate and MLPAT on the fringes of the regulations mentioned. As to discussions of ideas on the programme worth contrainte de larisse anti aging cream is the first wide-scope event of this genre put together by the Ministry of Culture in Brăila on the occasion of the competition for the cathedral to be built therein In the lobby of the theatre where the discussions were held an exhibition was also opened of related projects.
Subsequently, contrainte de larisse anti aging cream Union of Romanian Architects took over and organized in the first years of the decade several debates on contemporary Christian Orthodox architecture, inviting representatives of the clergy, hierarchs and fine artists to attend Horia Bernea and Sorin Dumitrescu, for instance.
Unfortunately, with the exception of random notes in the specialized magazine Arhitext and Arhitectura the contents of these debates, touching most variegated topics, were never made available to the public interested: from the architecture of the new religious abodes to the necessity of rebuilding the Văcăreşti Monastery.
In mid decade all preoccupation with the programme seemed to have faded, at last from the vantage of architects, judging by the meagre number of meetings, competitions or public conferences. Several books dedicated to the sacred space began, discreetly, to be printed.
Others followed: dedicated to the churches demolished, a serious study strictly limited though to the documentary interest of the topic. Then recently, contrainte de larisse anti aging cream studies focussing on the churches in Bucharest or the synagogues in Romania, or various other matters or the architecture of the Transylvanian wooden churches.
Doctoral dissertations were defended at UAUIM on the architecture of the Christian Orthodox churches Smaranda Bica, which, at least address contrainte de larisse anti aging cream topic in the context of contemporary architecture. Studies on the roles of parishes or other religious abodes were published by the cultural press.
I will mention here only the one on the roles of parishes in the makeup of the urban space by Prof.
Sanda Voiculescu in Secolul 20 dedicated to Bucharest The study dealing with Bucharest between the Orient and the Occident cremă anti-îmbătrânire pentru tineret pentru totdeauna opiniile clienților by Dana Harhoiu Bucharest, Simetria, is basically a topological analysis of the situation in urban context of the Bucharest churches.
In relation with the results thereof the book evinces a series of privileged positions and trajectories of urban composition centre, directing axes, concentric circles that are defined by cult abodes or monasteries.
This is neither a bibliography sufficiently rich nor extremely variegated as level of analysis of the matter of sacred architecture. The theoretical exercises and the research into the edified substance of the sacred space, due for nearly two decades now to architects like Ioan Andreescu, Vlad Gaivoroski Timişoara or Florin Biciuşcă Bucharest continue to remain unknown and therefore not localized as priorities at the time of their emergence because of the more general absence of a critical history of architecture on the present-day territory of Romania, and especially in the post-war epoch.
The thoughts of theologians, if worded, continue to stay far from the public space and do not point to a constant, priority theoretical preoccupation to become manifest in volumes even collectivein exhibitions, in symposia or at least in significant public interventions. The few texts written especially for magazines outside the theological sphere Vatra, Transilvania, Arhitectura are obviously circumstantial and lacking the substance of the applied study, no matter the conclusions arrived at.
Most often than not, they are litanies strewn with uncommented quotes from the Bible called up to clinch the discussion even when and especially then their significance in the context invoked remains obscure. At the end of the contest it had become clear for everybody that a hiatus existed, that the gestures to meet half way were but few and mostly rhetorical and that the very accommodation with arguments of the others, to say nothing of their acceptance, would take many years.
To begin with, the clergy began to attack, supported in the background by several socialistic architects.
Thus, for all their exceptional project the team of architects Dan Marin and Zeno Bogdănescu was awarded only the second prize. The opinion of the representative of the clergy and of the then minister of culture although for different reasons had the same result. It was not the respective project that was implemented and none those present in the competition either, although some of them were interesting.
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What should have been a signal of radical renewal the chapel dedicated to the heroes of the revolution was designed by a team of anonymous persons to whom the project was directly and surreptitiously entrustederected on the q. At a certain moment, because of the disputes between the Patriarchate and the respective settlement, the works had to be stopped and to my knowledge they were not resumed.
The competition for Suceava, sponsored by the then newly created Metropolitan of Moldavia, H. Daniel produced a result which then, as today, continues to seem strange. The fact that architects prevailed on that jury justifies, most likely, the respective decision.
This church has not managed to go beyond the level of foundations and already seems a scrapped project. About the Braşov contest there is not a lot of public information. Through the good will of the authors I have managed, nonetheless, to obtain and publish two of the projects presented in the competition, one of them being the winner. The church is not frequently found as a design topic, or diploma subject. In the rare cases when such a project was nonetheless suggested to the students priests or hierarchs were never invited to discuss with them.
The results are matching, granted big marks and displayed in exhibitions. However, the situation might change. Together with professor Florin Biciuşcă and a number of enthusiasts we are in the process of launching the anthropology of the sacred space as a field of undergraduate specialisation followed by a masters course in sacred architecture from the academic year There are only several others in the world devoted to the question of sacred spaces and their present status among the more prestigious is the MIT program on Islamic architecture sponsored by the Aga Khan Foundation and none addresses the topic of Orthodox heritage and religious architecture.
This could be a first step in the right direction. On the other hand though, the architectural education still lacks the kind of sensitivity that is vital to understanding and nourish such an approach: in restoration projects there is an infinite reluctance before any new intervention, or contemporary addition which, well poised, can illuminate exactly the aura of the past that such a restoration should give back to the monument or the ensemble.
Finally, one or maximum two diplomas per class and not in all years, go to show that where there is no didactic interest it cannot be compensated by any such thing from the students either than by individual ricochet. Everywhere hundred of hotels, of towers darting to the sky, of mediatheques; hi-tech expressionism and radical deconstruction.
No church though. This is a proportion that reflects the other way round that on the market where the future architects will actually work, and which, in the inverted relationship established rather mirrors the gap between present-day architectural education, research and production. This leaves the future professionals deprived of any trace of professionalism when it comes to meeting an order for a sacred space. The errors and the delay of all attempt to devise consistent, institutionalised, collaborative problems out of this topic become visible in time.
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Ten fingers are too many to number the successes scored in building Christian Orthodox churches built in Romania in the last ten years. Not all the failures can be laid on the architects, but no doubt that successes are due at least to yet another person: the hierarch of the place, the parish priest or the generous enlightened sponsor.
The contest involving the Cathedral for the Redemption of the Nation showed one more time the dead-end where the Romanian Christian Orthodox architecture stands today and the confusion in which wallow those on whom its destiny depends.
The presence of the interlocutors — community, clergy — bothers them and does nothing but further enhance their demiurgic spirit for which any failure to have a church erected exclusively as they want is one more proof that they are right. On the other hand, the current, massive production of Christian Orthodox spaces is not discussed publicly, with examples, and in no way systematically. The schools of theology do not give critical courses going beyond the stage of encomiastic presentation of comestibile incredibile elvețiană anti-îmbătrânire architecture or any on the presentation of the contemporary sacred architecture in the other Christian churches and denominations, or at least of the other monotheist religions as it would be minimally necessary, given the admirable examples of mosques and synagogues designed by brilliant names of modern and contemporary architects.
It therefore takes upon itself competencies that it cannot prove or support, while vying with the local advisers in matters of town planning or architectural competence, thus saving them from the responsibility of their own signature.
The commission stopped less failures than it gave green light to, or was detoured by with the complicity of local authorities. Modern vs. An Identity Crisis I have attended the round tables organized by the Union of Romanian Architects on the topic and, in the absence of the reports thereof to quote from them, I would like to point again to the discrepancy between the discourses of the clergy and the architects.
From then on, no gesture of reconciliation was made at institutional level. Also a classification may be established of the various orientations that the architects privileged in their designs and that the sponsors accepted where the church has been set up or where building efforts are under way or rejected where the least attempt to start building was stopped from the very first.
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In a previous book, referring to the history of the Romanian Orthodox architecture I gave a classification of the procedures by which the then architects in their attempt to create an identity for their edifices — and as a ricochet of the communities to which those churches were dedicated — put them at work. I will rephrase it here adding nuances that I have discovered meanwhile to be necessary and then I will try to notice to what extent such a classification is still relevant today.
In relation with the identity mechanisms two big categories can be distinguished, as well as a third that ignores them deliberately: a projects that use precedents belonging to the medireview past as source of inspiration, asserting therefore that although different, the planimetric, volume and decoration typologies from Wallachia and Moldavia can be used to reshape the national identity of the two provinces together subsequent toof all.
The use of the medireview precedent to establish a national specific raised two major problems for piure de rosii anti imbatranire Christian Orthodox architecture : if the precedent was a village church it could not be used as an a equate model for urban cathedrals that had to be monumental.
If the reference addressed ampler churches, monasteries, the problem arose of the inconvenient ethnic origin of the masters that erected them Serbians in Wallachia, Caucasians and Slavs in Moldavia.
In exchange, this new projects regim de îngrijire a pielii pentru anti-îmbătrânire the celebration of the origin of the nation, be it the blood or religious origin. Goga, photoprojects for the competition of the Christian Orthodox Cathedral of Odessa,by the same architects, now in separate teams, photo. Since the Romanians were born Christian Orthodox a slogan that continues to be circulated even today by the clergy with the same lack of discernment it results that the new Christian Orthodox architecture had to be Byzantine for instance, the metropolitan Cathedral of Sibiu, St.
Elefterie Nou and Caşin contrainte de larisse anti aging cream Bucharest, etc. Petersburg, — any sort of formally convenient imported element. This explains how come the Cluj Cathedral has a cupola that reminds equally of the Paris Pantheon and St. Before the war this direction stayed on the fringes of the production of sacred spaces. That moment put a stop to the becoming of Christian Orthodox architecture well after The biggest part of the good-quality architectural production practically reduced to projects with a few notable exceptions pertains to the latter direction, c2 in the above scheme, only theoretically imposed by Petru Antonescu.
As a sub-category of the streamlining direction we find the symbolists. They ask questions regarding the major significances of the sacred space or the metaphors describing it better and then try to transpose them in contemporary language.
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Along this line, it is interesting to note the attention acquired in the new Christian Orthodox architecture by the Greek cross plan, built extremely seldom in the Romanian medireview provinces.
In this procedure we find an echo of N. Collages are also the projects like the ones for the Romanian settlement of Jericho Photo by architects Sorin Vasilescu and Horea Gavriş, where traditional elements are joined, here and there updated by a contemporary reference the wood structure of the vaults and of the cupola, for instance that render more tensional the relationship between the new and the old. The fact that he saw possible the non-traditional use of reinforced concrete which, eventually would produce images to be recognized as belonging to the Christian Orthodox space, helps, no doubt, towards his re-assessment.
Constantin Joja alongside his colleague, N. Goga is also rediscovered; here I claim a certain merit since I have written about his projects and republished several images of his and projects. Often, between the two terms the relation of opposition is made visible and not that of coincidence.
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